Language Design: Equality & Identity

Part 4: Fixing Haskell

Published on 2019-03-14.

Basic goals, as mentioned in the previous parts:

You should not lose values inside a data structure.

Here is the simple example again, demonstrating the issue:

elem (0.0/0.0) [0.0/0.0] -- False

To be clear, elem is picked as the simplest example possible.1

Status Quo

So why is Eq not doing its job, or rather what is its job description in the first place? Reading Data.Eq it turns out, it’s not much:

It is expected to have the following properties: […]

So why is Eq so incredibly low-assurance compared to many other typeclasses that state their laws?

The reason becomes obvious if you scroll down the page – if the “expected properties” were upgraded to “laws”, you would have law-breaking typeclass instances in one of the most central module of Haskell.

What Haskell does with Eq is claiming that there is one definition of equality per type. I consider this to be false – case in point: floating point numbers.

There can be multiple useful definitions of equality per type, and depending on the use-case having only one available is not sufficient. Using newtypes to swap one implementation of == for another one is not sufficient in the same regard. Even simple functions like list’s elem require both equality and identity.

Available Options

The key point is that only two of the three properties can be satisfied:

  1. correct data structures
  2. abstraction/polymorphism
  3. a single “universal” equality function

The status quo is discarding property 1.:

  • Data structures which lose values, example: elem (0.0/0.0) [0.0/0.0] returns False.
  • Polymorphic data structures like Lists and Vectors.
  • A single equality function == on Eq.

Discarding property 2. would give you:

  • Correctly working data structures, example: elem (0.0/0.0) [0.0/0.0] returns True.
  • Specialized data structures like FloatLists or DoubleVectors (likely in addition to polymorphic variants), which implement functions like elem using both Eq’s == and functions specific to Floats or Doubles. Semantics would differ between polymorphic and specialized variants.
  • A single equality function == on Eq and type-specific functions in specialized data structures.

Discarding property 3. would give you:

  • Correctly working data structures, example: elem (0.0/0.0) [0.0/0.0] returns True.
  • Polymorphic data structures like Lists and Vectors.
  • Eq provides two functions: An equality function (==) and an identity function (===).


Here is how the last approach can be implemented:

The Solution

So how to fix it? Let’s go for the simplest fix; instead of introducing a new typeclass for identity, extend Eq as follows:

class  Eq a  where
  (==), (/=), (===), (/==) :: a -> a -> Bool

  x ==  y              = not (x /= y)
  x /=  y              = not (x == y)
  x === y              = x == y         -- new
  x /== y              = not (x === y)  -- new

So nothing would change for 99% of Eq’s instances, but Float, Double (and a few other types) their instances would now be defined like this:

instance Eq Double where
  (==)  = eqDouble
  (===) = Numeric.IEEE.identicalIEEE  -- new

Then change the documentation replacing the “expected properties” of == and /= with “laws” of === and /==.

As a last exercise, adjust usages of x == y with x == y || x === y where appropriate (e. g. list’s elem).

And there you have it:

  • strong assurances instead of “it would be nice”
  • lawful instances where there were none before
  • more reliable behavior of data structures
  • no need to spin new types for things which should work out-of-the-box, because deriving Eq just works
  1. Even arguing that False is the correct result of the code example does not detract from the points being made, as there are plenty of other examples. Taking Ord’s issues into account, which are very similar, would add even more examples.